Bladder stones are a common problem in many species of tortoise.
Ninety two diagnosed on routine annual physical exam.
Eight presented because they were "sick" (no appetite, egg binding, constipation, stunted growth, problems urinating).
Males 60 percent; females 40 percent.
This collection of bladder stones was removed from 100 tortoises.
Seventy three percent of cases had one stone, 21 percent had two stones, 5 percent had three stones, 1 percent had five stones.
Stones averaged 5.4 cm in diameter (range 0.4 to 14 cm, 15 stones measured).
Forty seven percent of the stones were found on the left side of the tortoise, 30 percent on the right side, 23 percent on the midline.
All tortoises had surgery to remove the stones. All 100 patients were alive on recheck one year after the surgery.