Garter Snake Care SheetGarter snakes are readily available both online and in pet shops

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Garter Snake Care Sheet

Garter snakes are readily available both online and in pet shops.

Garter snakes are small colubrid snakes found throughout most of the United States.

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Garter Snake (Thamnophis sp.)

Garter snakes are small colubrid snakes that are not constrictors. They do not pose any dangers to children other than salmonella, which can be carried by any reptile. They are active during the day so they have excellent eye sight which they use along with their keen sense of smell to find and capture prey. They make great display pets because they are very alert and active. In the wild they are often found around water; streams, rivers, lakes and marshes.


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Where To Buy Garter Snakes

Garter snakes are readily available both online and in pet shops. Captive born baby garter snakes are most widely available in the late spring after the birthing season. Many different species and morphs are available in online classifieds thru the summer. Wild caught animals are rarely seen for sale anymore. Captive bred and born babies are preferred because they will have far less issues with feeding and disease.

Garter Snake Size

Females are around 3ft long depending on species and males are usually 2ft or less in length. They are a fairly slim bodied snake, males more so than females. Babies are very small, average size at birth is 6-8 inches.

Garter Snake Life Span

The average life span in the wild may only be 4-5 years however they can live twice as long in captivity. Captives reaching over 10 years old have been documented when reptile health and wellness is prioritized along with proper snake supplies, reptile cleaning supplies, and snake habitat products.

Garter Snake Caging

Garters are best suited for aquarium or reptile terrarium style cages. Acrylic or screen style terrariums make ideal enclosures and can be decorated reptile habitat accessories like wood and vines for the snake to climb around on, which provides beneficial exercise. Minimum size for an adult is a 40 gallon equivalent terrarium. Males could be kept in slightly smaller enclosures than females due to their size difference. Multiple garter snakes can be kept together with more space however they should be separated for feeding to avoid incidental cannibalism. A pair of garter snakes can live comfortably in a 55 gallon equivalent enclosure. The more space the better as garters are very active and like to climb so consider a larger and taller enclosure.


Garter Snake Lighting, Temperature and Humidity

While UV light may not be considered necessary it can be beneficial as garter snakes are active during the day in the wild. If UV light is not provided it is recommended to occasionally dust food items with a calcium/vitamin powder that contains D3. Garter snakes need a basking area between 90-95 degrees for proper digestion. Heat can be provided by either a basking lamp, heat tape under the tank or both. As with any reptile, a temperature gradient should occur in the cage with hides on both the hot and cool sides monitored by heat and light controller. It is important to maintain moderate humidity for proper shedding, however the cage should not be kept damp or wet as this will cause blistering on the belly. A reptile water dish large enough for the snake to submerge in will provide plenty of humidity. In the winter time when indoor house humidity is long it may be important to partially cover screen tops to maintain moderate humidity.

Garter Snake Substrate

There are many substrates that will work for garter snakes. Popular choices are aspen shavings, newspaper pellets or pulp crumbles (Carefresh or similar products), cypress and coco-husk products. Substrates to avoid are sand, clay cat litter, cedar, pine or other aromatic wood products, or dirt from outside. Newpaper or paper towels can be used for babies but are not good choices for adults. Due to garter’s high metabolism, a deeper more absorbent substrate is preferable. Also, garters like to burrow, so it is good to provide at least an inch or two of substrate. I have used newspaper pellets or pulp, aspen, and wood pellets with good results.

Garter Snake Food

Many keepers feed adults a frozen thawed rodent only diet, which is fine because this provides complete nutrition. However in the wild garters would eat a more varied live reptile food diet consisting of worms, amphibians, fish, and rodents, so it is a good idea to provide some variety in captivity. I prefer to feed both night crawlers and rodents, which can be found in pet stores or online reptile shops. Babies are easy to start on small cut up pieces of night crawlers. Most feeder fish contain an enzyme called thiaminase, which breaks down thiamine (vitamin B1). Long term exclusive feeding of these fish should be avoided, because doing so can lead to a potentially fatal vitamin deficiency. Garters DO NOT eat crickets, mealworms or other insects.

Garter Snake Water

A water dish large enough for the snake to completely submerge in is ideal. Garters love water and will often soak, especially before shedding. A water area large enough for swimming is ideal but not necessary. Garters will sometimes defecate in water, so it is important to check and change frequently. I prefer to use 16 ounce disposable deli cups, which are replaced at least once a week. This is the bare minimum size for adults.


Garter Snake Handling and Temperament

Wild caught garters can be defensive. Even some individual captive born babies can have a defensive disposition and will coil and strike. However, most captive animals will be quite tame if raised with regular handling.

Jeff Benfer has kept garter snakes and many other species of reptiles and amphibians for more than 40 years, and he has successfully bred many species and subspecies of garter snakes. He has authored articles about garter snakes both in the U.S. and abroad, and he produced the world’s first snow red-sided garter snake in 2009. He has degrees in fine art, biotechnology and biochemistry and is currently working on completing a master’s degree in epidemiology. For more info visit