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Breeder's Notebook: Burmese Mountain Tortoise

References for the July 2008 REPTILES magazine article "Breeder’s Notebook."

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Blyth, E. 1853. “Notices and descriptions of various reptiles new or little known.” Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 1:639-655.

Bour, R. 1998. “Histoire du genre Manouria Gray, 1857, et des especies actuelles.” Manouria. 1:25-40.


Fife, R. 1989. “Captive behavior and reproduction of the Burmese mountain tortoise.” In M.J. Uricheck (ed.), 13th International Herpetological Symposium on Captive Propagation and Husbandry. pp. 135-138. Zoological Consortium Inc., Thurmont, Maryland.

Gray, J.E. 1854. “Description of a new genus and some new species of tortoises.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. (1852):133-135.

Jenkins, M. 1995. “Tortoises and freshwater turtles: the trade in Southeast Asia.” TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Kuchling, G. 1999. The Reproductive Biology of the Chelonia. Springer, Verlag.

Lambert, F.R. and J.R. Howes. 1994. “Ranging, breeding behavior and food of the Asian brown tortoise (Manouria emys) in Borneo.” Malayan Nature Journal. 48:125-131.


Liat, L.B. and I. Das. 1999. Turtles of Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Louwman, J.W.W. 1982. “Breeding the six-footed tortoise (Geochelone emys) at Wassenaar Zoo.” In International Zoo Yearbook. P.J.S. Olney, P. Ellis and B. Sommerfelt (eds.). 22:153-156. Zoological Society of London.

McKeown, S. 1999. “Nest mounding and egg guarding of the Asian forest tortoise (Manouria emys).” REPTILES magazine Vol. 7, No. 9. September 1999. pp. 70-83.

Moll, E.O. 1989. “Manouria emys: Asian brown tortoise.” In “The Conservation Biology of Tortoises,” I.R. Swingland and M.W. Klemens (eds.). pp. 119-120. Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. No. 5. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.


Morgan, V. and C. Schaffer. 2001. “Observations on the captive behavior of the Burmese mountain tortoise (Manouria emys).” Emys. 8(4). pp. 15-32.

Pritchard, P.C.H. 1979. Encyclopedia of Turtles. T.F.H. Neptune, Florida.

Schaffer, C. 2001. “Behavioral observations from a long-term ex-situ study of Manouria emys, the Burmese mountain tortoise, with comments on its in-situ status.” Proceedings of Joint Meeting of the HL and SSAR. July 27-31, 2001. Indianapolis, Indiana.

Schaffer, C. and V. Morgan. 2000. “Captive reproductive behavior of the Burmese mountain tortoise (Manouria emys) and its value in heritage collections.” Chelonian Round Table on Relocation and Heritage Collections, Orlando, Florida.


Schlegel, H. and S. Müller. 1844. “Over de Schildpadeen van den Indischen Archipel., beschrijving einer nieuw soort van Sumatra.” In 1839-44. Zool., pt. 3, Reptilia, pp. 29-36.

Sharma, D.S.K. 1999. “Tortoise and freshwater turtle trade and utilization in peninsular Malaysia.” TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Thirakhupt, K., and P.P. van Dijk. 1997. “The turtles of western Thailand — pushed to the edge by progress.” In Conservation, Restoration and Management of Tortoises and Turtles. J. Van Abbema (ed.). pp. 272-277. New York Turtle and Tortoise Society, New York.


van Dijk, P.P. 1997. “Turtle conservation in Myanmar: past, present and future.” In Conservation, Restoration and Management of Tortoises and Turtles. J. Van Abbema (ed.). pp. 265-271. New York Turtle and Tortoise Society, New York.